Viewing All Flashcards for Genetics 3000
The evolutionary process where a species evolves without phylogenetic branching
The evolutionary process where one species evolves into two or more species/ splitting from the phylogenetic tree
The trait or character being studied
A character state that is ancesteral.also shared between the outgroup and one or more ingroups
A character state that has changed for the ancestral.also only present on the ingroup and not the outgroup.
A ancestral character state
A derived character state
A shared derived character state
A species complex that includes the ancestors and all their descendants.
A species complex that includes a single most recent common ancestor and its descendents
A species complex that includes a group of species but not their ancestor
A species group used to help determine the evolutionary relationship between 3 or more monophyletic groups. the out-group does not share character states with the in-group (only a few if at all)
A species group who's age has already been determined through radioactive dating and is used as a refrence group to date fossils.
Two or more groups that are related but widely separated from each other geographically.ex: distribution of pine trees
The least number of speciation or branching events need to describe the evolution of an organism
When an organism is only found in a particular geographic region. ex: hawaian fruit flies
Evolved in presently occupied region (e.g. tree sloths)
Present as a consequence of dispersal (S. American rabbits)
Expansion of range (ex: migration)3 events needed to disrupt barriers
History of fragmentation of habitat of widespread species should mirror the cladistic relationships of the species (ex: gulf and atlantic shrimp separated from each other by the isthmus of panama)
disrupts all 3 dispersal barriers all at once
Different parts of the land-surface of the globe are inhabited by different kinds of animals, or, in other words, by different faunas. These differences, in many cases at any rate, are not due to differences of temperature or of climate; and they do not depend on the distance of one place from another. resulted form the splitting of Pangea.ex: anteaters
The evolution of 2 or more species specifically and reciprocally in response to one another
Non coding sequences appear to be evolving as an unit.or Molecular processes that facilitate changes in a single genetic element to be incorporated into all genes belonging to a multi-gene family
When 1 allele can change another allele into its own sequence through some molecular mechanism.ex: australian grasshoppers (mortensian converted into the torensian form due to drying from north to south)
The movement of a piece of DNA around the chromosome - from one gene to another or to another oart of the chromosome , usually with the help of a transposable element.