Viewing All Flashcards for Developmental Psychology - Emotional development,
The combination of physical and physiological attributes that s unique to each individual
Thinking people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors of themselves and other people Paralleles the development of self-concept
Sensory information from the muscles, tendons and joints that help one to locate the position of ones body (for body parts in space.
Recognition that one can be the cause of an event
One´s perceptions of ones unique attributes or traits Onc4 infants know what they are, they are in a position to find out who and what they are, recognize their own physical features
The ability to recognize oneself in the mirror or a photograph
Early self-representation in which 2 and 3 years old recognize current representations of self but are unaware that past-self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the present
More mature self-representaition, emerging between ages 3 1/2 and 5 years, in which children are able to integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of a self that endures over time
A person´s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex
Acting in ways that do not reflect one´s true self or "true me"
One´s evaluation of one´s worth as a person based n an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept
Feelings of self-esteem within a particular relationship context (for example, with parents, with male classmates) may differ across relationship contexts.
The process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself to other people
Willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment
An inborn motive to explore, understand and control one´s environment
Phase 1: Before Age 2,Children are pleased to master challenges, displaying mastery motivation. NOT call for attention, when failing they shift goalsPhase 2: Near Age 2, Toddlers Seek recognition, how others evaluate their performance, expect approval after success and disapproval after failurePhase 3: Age 3, children react more independently on their successes and failures, adapt objective standards, experience real pride and real shame
A desire to archive in order to satisfy ones personal needs for competence or mastery (as opposed to archiving for external incentives such as grades)
Flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control which allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challenges and obligations-> Children are likely to enjoy new challenges& feel confident of mastering these BAD: High levels of control, no guidance
Causal explanations that one provides for his/her success and failures (4 different types)
How well one expects to perform If stable: Strong expectancies, if unstable low expectancies -> Either Ability, task difficulty, effort, luck
Belief that one´s ability can be improved through increased effort and practiceSmall children: Increased effort, lots of practice: Smarter, more capable
Belief that one´s ability is a highly stable trait that is not influences much by effort or practice8- 12 years old begin to distinguish effort from ability (school: Grades for quality, not for effort)
A tendency to persist at challenging tasks because of a belief that one has high ability and/or that earlier failures can be overcome by trying harder
A tendency to give up or to stop trying after failing because these failures have been attributed to a lack of ability that one can do little about
Therapeutic intervention in which helpless children are persuaded to attribute failures to their lack of effort rather than their lack of ability-> Learning goals
Praise focusing on désirable personality traits such as intelligence; this praise fosters performance goals in achievement contexts-> Focus mainly on performance goal, not on learning
State of affaires in which one´s primary objective in an achievement context is to display one´s competencies or to avoid looking incompetent) -> person praise such as you are really smart, more interested in outcome than in learning
Praise of effort expended to formulate good ideas and effective problem-solving strategies; this praise fosters learning goals in achievement contexts
State of affaires in which in which one´s primary objective in an achievement context is to increase one´s skills or ability -> Process-orientated praise
A mature self-definition; A sense of who one is, where one is going in life, and how one fits into society
Erikson´s term for the uncertainty and discomfort that adolescence experience when they become confused about their present and future roles in life
Do nor question who they are and have not yet committed themselves to an identity
Individuals who have committed themselves to occupations or ideologies without really thinking about these commitments
Individuals who are currently experiencing an identity crisis and are actively exploring occupational and ideological in which to invest themselves.
Individuals who have carefully considered identity issues and have made firm commitments to an occupation and ideologies.
Cognitive, parenting, scholastic influences (college), social-cultural influences
The tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting their their overt behaviors. (faster, better pictures..)Increases between 6 and 8, declines rapidly after 9 when they eventually begin to attribute them to stable psychological constructs
Tendency to base one´s impression of others on the stable traits these individuals are presumed to have 10+ Not "draw better pictures" but: "Very artistic"
11+ tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting these individuals on abstract psychological dimensions.
The ways that children think the self and other people largely depend on their own levels of cognitive development, what the thinking centers on
Role taking is the ability to assume another person´s perspective and understand his or her thoughts, feelings, and behaviors-> Children gain much richer understanding of themselves and other people as they acquire the ability to discriminate their own perspectives from other´s and understand their thoughts and feelings and see the relationships between them