Viewing All Flashcards for Social psychology
The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people.
The tendency to explain our own and other people's behavior entirely in terms of personality traits, thereby underestimating the power of social influence.
A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment - that is, how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors.
First purposed as a theory of how people perceive the physical world...this school of psychology holds that we should study the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds (the gestalt, the whole )rather than the way in which the objective, physical attributes of the object combine.
People's evaluations of their own self-worth - that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions.
1. observational method2. correlational method3. experimental method
The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behaviorex. ethnography it is important to establish interjudge reliability ex. archival analysisLIMITATIONS
The technique whereby two or more variable are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessedcorrelation coefficientsurveys are often used, random selection is also usedpositive vs. negativeLIMITATIONS
The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on people's responses)independent variabledependent variablerandom assignment to conditionprobability level (p-value)external validitypsychological realismcover storyfield experimentsreplicationsmeta-analysisbasic researchapplied researchinternal validity
Research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised
The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection.
1. informed consent2. deception3. institutional review board (IRB)4. debriefing
Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remembercommonly referred to as, stereotypes (scripts = schemas about events, ex. going to class on the first day, already know how it works)1. accessibility2. priming 3. self-fulfilling prophecy4. reconstructive memory
1. judgmental heuristics2. availability heuristic3. representative heuristic
Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context; this type of thinking is common in Western culturesa type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other; this type of thinking is common in East Asia cultures
Thinking that's conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortfulMentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
The attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch and gaze.
To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the backto interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations, such as the OK sign
A type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well.
A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behaviorFritz Heider's big insight: 2 types of attributions
The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality(personal)
The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation.
A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note that pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs
Information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
Information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances.
The tendency to infer that people's behavior corresponds to (matches) their disposition (personality)
The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
Analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
The tendency to see other people's behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one's own behaviorex. "a pedestrian hit me and went under my car"
Explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external situational factors.
Explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
The content of the self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
The act of thinking about ourselves
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings and actions of other peopleVSa way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people; recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others.
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values*temporary psychological state
Theories about the causes of one's own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture(i.e. absence makes the heart grow fonder)
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one's attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons**remember study about giving children awards for coloring vs. the children who did not get an award for coloring (playing turned into work)
Rewards that are given for performing as task, regardless of how well the task is done
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
Info that occurs early on in the sequence is given more weight than info given later on *first impressions matter
Wording changes that influence how we perceive something
Physical facial emotional displays lead to emotion being felt ex. if you smile enough, you'll be happy
We tend to over-generalize based on physical characteristics
First impressions tend to stick, even when wrong
A person with a positive trait is assumed to have other positive traits
The tendency to explain others' behavior in terms of dispositional factors, while ignoring potential situational factors
People tend to make internal attributes for positive outcomes and blame negative outcomes on external forcesWHY?
We overestimate our control over events, we underestimate the role of chance or uncontrollable factors *belief in a just world *blaming the victim
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which our actions and appearance are salient to other people *bad hair days
Individualistic cultures - ppl strive for personal achievementcollectivitstic cultures - ppl derive more satisfaction from the status of the valued group (self-serving bias is less prominent)
2 theories:-primitive need to connect with others and gain their approval-seeing oneself as a valuable member of society helps us cope with our fear of death
Ppl tend to overestimate their emotional reactions to future positive and negative events.*we tend to get over things quickly than we think*we do not dwell on the happiness for long
-we want to evaluate our own opinions and abilities, to be accurate-when we can't be objective, we compare ourselves to others-we seek to compare to SIMILAR others
1. organizes the world - self schemas -self reference effect: info is more easily recalled when it's related to the self -we show a preference for self-related info2. motivates us -self complexity-buffering hypothesis
The discrepancies within the ideal (what we strive for - aspirations), actual (what we actually are) and ought (our obligations and responsibilities) selves
1. others - reflected appraisals 2. social comparisons3. observing our own behaviors4. introspection
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
Theories holding that emotions result from people's interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot changeVSthe idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or abilityVScomparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
The process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
1. self-serving cognitions2. self-handicapping3. basking in reflected glory4. downward social comparison5. positive illusions
1. higher than average self-esteem associated with narcissism, interrupting others, and extreme ethnocentrism2. gang leaders, terrorists, bullies tend to have inflated self-esteem3. ppl who have favorable self-esteems threatened show heightened aggression
Implicit egotism - a tendency to hold ourselves in high regard
A limited resource that becomes depleted when used too much**study about radishes and cookies