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Protons = positive charged particlesNeutrons = non charged particles (neither + or -) neutralElectrons = negative charged particles
Ionic bonds = formed by transfer of electrons from one atom to another.Covalent bonds = formed by sharing of electrons between atomsNon-Polar = equal sharing of electrons (H2) HydrogenPolar = unequal sharing of electrons (H2O) water
PH scaleScale goes from 0------140-6 = acidic (0 being the most acidic)7 = neutral8-14 = basic (alkaline) (14 being the most basic)Buffer = maintains constant pH of a solution
Are proteins that are essential for metabolism,they serve as catalysts in the 100's of reactions that take place within the cell.
Adenine (A)Thymine (T)Guanine (G)Cytosine (C)
Adenine (A) mRNAUracil (U) tRNAGuanine (G) Ribosomal RNACytosine (C)
1. DNA unzips2. mRNA forms a complimentary base pair3. mRNA released moves to Cytoplasm4. DNA rezips
1.Ribosome binds to mRNA2.tRNA with complimentary anti codon associates with ribosome and amino acid it carries.3. becomes part of chain4. Process repeats5. Completed protein is released
Alkane = saturated and all single bondsAlkene = unsaturated and all double bonds.
1.Anabolism =building into complex molecules (burn energy)2.Catabolism =breakdown into simpler molecules (makes energy)
1.Anaerobic = AKA Glycolysis in cytosol2.Yeilds 2 ATP3.End Product = pyruvic acid
Aerobic = requires o2in Mitochondria2 reactions=citric acid cycle and electron transport chain34--36 ATPend product = ATP + H2O + CO2 + heat
Rate of energy released in food from cellsInfluenced by body size, body fatsex ageactivity and hormones
20 kinds of amino acids (building blocks)11 are non essential (internally Produced)9 are essential and must be taken in by diet
Diffusion = Constant amount of particles from a rwgion of relatively higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
Osmosis = diffusion of water through a semipermeable membraneActive Transport = membrene moves against the concentration gradiantRequires energy
Fascilitated diffusionfrom higher concentration to lower concentrationsugar is the main energy source.
Movement of vesicles/bulk transport
1.Hypertonic = cell shrinks2.Hypotonic = cell swellsIsotonic = cell stays the same
Mitosis = forms diploid cells46 chromosomesdaughter cells----identical to parentMeiosis = forms haploid sex cells23 chromosomes
Anaerobic = located in the cytoplasm = end product= pyruvic acid = 2 ATPAerobic =located in mitochondria =end produce = Carbon dioxide and water 30 ATPGlycolysis = occurs in the cytoplasm = breakdown of glucose = does not require oxygen
1.Frontal Plane = front ad back2.Sagittal Plane= left and right3.Transverse Plane =Top and Bottom4.Midsagittal
1.Above---Higher2.Below....Lower3.toward the belly surface4.toward the belly surface5.Near the back6,Near the back7.Near the head8.Near the sacral region of the spinal column9.Near---Dividing into left and right10.Further away from midline 11.Near the origin of the structure
1.Reception of Stimuli and control of response2.Production of Hormones and regulation of growth, metabolism, and reproduction3.Movement of blood for transport4.Aids in circulation, immunity, absorption of digested fats
1.Intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide2.Intake, breakdown, and absorption of nutrients3.Elimination of waste and water4.Production of offspring
A.covers surfaces and lines cavities, and forms glandsb.supports and forms the framework of all parts of the bodyc.contracts and produces movementd.conducts nerve impulses
1.Squamous = flat and irregular2.Cuboidal = square3.Columnar = long and narrow
Transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
1.Cells2.Tissues3.Organs4.Systems5. all of these make up 1 full organism
State of balance within the body