Viewing All Flashcards for AP Biology. Plant Structure & Function
(1) xylem (water transport)
(2) phloem (nutrient transport)
They increase the absorptive surface area of the root significantly so that water and minerals can be absorbed more efficiently.
The contents of a plant cell (without the cell wall)
At the tips of stems and roots
(1) zone of cell division
(2) zone of elongation
(3) zone of maturation
-all tissues exterior to the vascular cambium
-includes secondary phloem, cork cambium, cork, and periderm layers
-Removing a complete ring of bark from a tree will also remove secondary phloem, which makes up bark.
-Only the secondary phloem functions in sugar transport, so removing it will disable its food transport and kill it.
Parenchyma cells (e.g., found in potato starch cells)
Collenchyma cells (e.g., found in celery stalks)
Sclerenchyma cells (e.g., found in nut shells)
(2) vessel elements
(1) sieve-tube members
(2) companion cells
Elongated cells (e.g., tracheids, sieve-tube members)
Parenchyma cells that function in storage
The Casparian strip, a waxy suberin belt in the endodermis, allows the selective regulation of what minerals can or cannot enter the vascular tissue.
-Both are xylem vascular tissue.
-Heartwood is made of older xylem closer to the center that no longer transports water and minerals.
-Sapwood refers to the outer layers of younger xylem that is still functional.
(evaporation of water from the leaves)
Pressure flow model (phloem transport)
-In both xylem and phloem, pressure differences drive the bulk transport.
-Transpiration "pulls" the water and minerals in the xylem upward.
-Sugar loading and the osmosis of water into the phloem "push" sugar and nutrients from the source to the sink.
A plant that grows on another plant but gets water and nutrients from rain and air (i.e., not parasitic)
A flowering plant with one cotyledon in each seed
A flowering plant with two cotyledons in each seed
(1) one cotyledon in the plant embryo
(2) parallel veins in leaves
(3) vascular tissue scattered throughout stem
(4) fibrous root system
(5) pollen grain with a single furrow/pore
(6) flowers arranged in multiples of three
(1) two cotyledons in the plant embryo
(2) netlike veins in leaves
(3) bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a ring in the stem
(4) taproot system
(5) pollen grain with three furrows/pores
(6) flowers arranged in multiples of four or five
Plant movement toward or away from an external stimulus
(1) phototropism - light
(2) gravitropism - gravity
(3) thigmotropism - touch
The physiological responses of plants to relative lengths of light and dark cycles
-a reproductive cycle in which a haploid multicellular gametophyte stage is followed by a diploid multicellular sporophyte stage
-characterizes the life cycles of all land plants
Structure B (pollen cone)
Structure A (ovulate cone)
Structure B (carpel/pistil)
Asexual plant reproduction involving the production of plant clones from roots, leaves, or stems