Endocrine system

Last update by jacrosen1 on 04/16/2009
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gigantism

Answer:

hypersecretion of GH in childhood

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    cushing disease
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    prolactin/PRH
    due to increase in progesterone

    in mammals-stimulates mammary gland growth; milk synthesis
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    blood pressure/ACTH
    anterior pituitary

    stimulates production and secretion of steroid hormones by adrenal cortex

    ACTH causes an increase in blood pressure
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    urine volume (ACTH, ADH, aldosterone)

    ACTH-->under stress, hypothalamus tends to secrete more releasing horms that inc. the rate of secretion of ACTH

    ADH (posterior pituitary)-->regulates osmolarity of blood; increase, urine volume

    aldosterone-->regulated by RAAS in response to changes in plasma ion concentration; rise in ACTH in blood inc. rate of secretion of aldosterone by adrenal cortex

    all inc. urine vol.

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    Blood calcium (PTH, calcitonin)
    PTH-->increases calcium in blood

    calciotinin-->decreases calcium in blood

    2 hormones balance ea. other's effects, thereby minimizing fluctuations in the concentration of calcium in the blood; homeostasis maintained
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    liver glycogen (insulin, glucagon)
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    raises blood sugar

    glucagon breaks down glycogen which breaks down into glucose

    insulin-targets every cell; facilitated diffusion of glucose; secreted by beta cells from pancreas

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    blood glucose (insulin, glucagon)
    insulin decreases it, glucagon increases it

    pancreas
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    thymosin
    peptide hormone in thymus

    stimulates T lymphocytes
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    catecholamines synthesized by tyrosine (a.a.)

    fight or fight response

    adrenal medulla

    response to pos/neg stress

    inc. basal metabolic rate, increase rate of glycogen breakdown in liver and skeletal muscles and glucose release into the blood by liver cells; stimulate release of fatty acids from fat cells-->energy

    increase rate and stroke volume of heartbeat, dilate bronchioles

    causae smooth muscles of some blood vessels to contract and muscles of other vessels to relax (shunt blood)
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    STH/GH
    anterior pituitary

    peptide hormone

    promotes growth

    stimulates production of growth factors (IGFs)

    gigantism, acromegaly, dwarfism
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    aldosterone/ADH

    aldosterone stimulates cells in the kidney to reabsorb sodium ions and water from the filtrate, raising blood pressure and volume; acts with ADH to maintain water homeostasis of the blood

    ADH regulates blood osmolarity