Chapter 8-10

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Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.3)

a. glycolysis

b. substrate-level phosphorylation

c. oxidative phosphorylation

d. anabolic pathways

e. the citric acid cycle

Answer:
e. the citric acid cycle

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    In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and after a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____. (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. NADH

    b. oxygen gas

    c. water

    d. ATP

    e. carbon dioxide

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  • smiraclelynch
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    In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the removed electrons are used to reduce an NAD+ to an NADH.

    b. Pyruvate is reduced and decarboxylated, and the resulting electrons oxidize an NAD+ to an NADH

    c. Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the resulting electrons are donated to NADH to produce NAD+.

    d. Pyruvate is reduced to acetyl-coA, which involves the reduction of pyruvate, the addition of a carbon dioxide from the environment, and its reduction by NADH.

    e. Pyruvate is ionized directly to acetyl-coA.

    a. Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the removed electrons are used to reduce an NAD+ to an NADH

  • smiraclelynch
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    Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. NAD+ and FAD are recycled.

    b. The acetyl CoA that enters the cycle is regenerated in the last step of the pathway.

    c. NADH is cycled down the electron transport chain.

    d. The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle.

    e. All of the carbon from glucose is cycled back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

    d. The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle.

  • smiraclelynch
    Answered in Chapter 8-10

    In the citric acid cycle, for each pyruvate that enters the cycle, one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2 are produced. For each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, how many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced in the citric acid cycle? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. about 38 ATP

    b. two ATP, six NADH, two FADH2

    c. four ATP, six NADH, two FADH2

    d. one ATP, three NADH, one FADH2

    e. three ATP, three NADH, one FADH2

    b. two ATP, six NADH, two FADH2

  • smiraclelynch
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    Where do the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotic cells? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion

    b. the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

    c. the matrix of the mitochondrion

    d. the cytosol

    e. the cristae of the mitochondrion

    c. the matrix of the mitochondrion
  • smiraclelynch
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    How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. two

    b. four

    c. about 16 ATP

    d. three

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    Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. formation of NADH and FADH2

    b. formation of ATP

    c. formation of CO2

    d. completion of substrate-level phosphorylation

    e. utilization of O2

    a. formation of NADH and FADH2
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    After completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____. (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. FADH2

    b. NADH

    c. ATP

    d. CO2

    e. acetyl CoA

    b. NADH
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    Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle? (eText Concept 9.3)

    a. regeneration of NAD+

    b. release of CO2 and synthesis of NADH

    c. formation of CO2 and synthesis of ATP

    d. release of CO2 and release of coenzyme A

    e. removal of coenzyme A

    b. release of CO2 and synthesis of NADH
  • smiraclelynch
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    The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used in which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.4)

    a. the breakdown of glucose

    b. the oxidation of water

    c. the production of CO2

    d. pumping H+ across a membrane

    e. the production of NADH and FADH2

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    The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for synthesizing ATP directly from which of the following processes? (eText Concept 9.4)

    a. the movement of electrons through a series of carriers

    b. the oxidation of NADH and FADH2

    c. the flow of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme

    d. the oxidation of glucose

    e. the reduction of oxygen

    c. the flow of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme