Attachment: Evolutionary perspective

Last update by agathaismycopilot on 10/06/2011
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What are the strengths of Bowlby attachement theory?

* Research by Lorenz backed up Bowbly theory on imprinting, because the goslings had an innate mechism for attachment, to attach to the first moving object they saw.

*Hodges and Tizards studies on attachment found children who formed no attachment in early life had difficulty with peers. This supports the sensitive period.

*Studies show attachment is universal, regardless of culture. This supports that theory that it is an adaption of evolution.

*Schaffer and emerson found infants with many attachments still maintained one main attachment and that attachment wasn't based on how often that person bathed or fed it, but the quality of the interaction. This supports monotrophy and hierachy.

*Schaffer and Emerson observed that strongly attached infants had mothers who responded more too them. Harlow found that monkey raised by immobile wire mothers had difficulty interacting with peers and became poor parents themselves. Carlson found that insenstive caregiving was assiciated with having physicological problems in adulthood. This supports the idea of importance of caregiver senstivity.

*The minnesota longitudinal study found that participents who were more securely attachment as infants showed greater social competancy and were far more socially skilled. This supports the idea of the continuity hypothesis.

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    What were the weaknesses of the Bowbly attachment theory?

    *Multiple attachments: Many psychologists hold the view that all attachment figures are equally important.

    -Rutter created a multiple attachment model, in which no attachment is held as more or less important than the other.

    -Grossmann and Grossmann: found relationships between siblings were important for learning how to negotiate peers.

    However Prior and glaser conclude after reviewing research that evidence still points to a hiearchical attachment model.

    *Alternative explanation: The suggestion that temperament could in fact be the prime factor in secure and insecure attachment.

    -Kagan found that certain infant tempermants effected the mothers responsiveness towards them.

    -Thomas and Chess identified three main infant personailty types, easy, difficult and slow-to-warm up.

    -Bokhorst studied twins and found great simmilarity in tempremant.

    -Belsky and Rovine assessed babies behaviour and linked certian behaviour with later attachment types. They found infants that were less anxious were more likely to be securely attached.

    -Nachmias however found no connection etween early temperament types and attachment strengths.
Attachment  Evolutionary perspective
Attachment: Evolutionary perspective
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