Memory: 3

Last update by agathaismycopilot on 09/11/2011
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What does the central executive do?

Answer:
Monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working memory.

Resource allocation but has a small capacity.

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    What does the visuo-spatial sketchpad do?
    Encodes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in one's visual field
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    What is the episodic buffer?
    Added to the model to explain why amnesia patients can recall passages of books when tested fairly immediately despite having no long-term recall.

    Temporarily stores information, then combines with other information to form a 'mental episode' of what is currently happening. Also a general store & integrates information from other stores .
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    What is the phonological loop?
    Subdivided into the phonological stores (inner ear) and articulatory stores (inner voice).

    Phonological loop, has a limited capacity. Encodes speech sounds into working memory, typically involving maintenance rehearsal. Which is why it is referred to as a 'loop'.
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    What is the evidence for the central executive?
    Activity inside the CE, should theoretically increase when an individual performs two tasks simultaneously.

    Bunge, used fMRI to see which parts of the brain were must active when the Participants were doing two tasks. There was significantly more brain activity when performing two tasks, indicating increased attention demands, more brain activity .
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    Evidence for the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
    Baddeley staged a visual tracking task. One task involved only one components of the sketchpad, the other involved two. The participants found the second one significantly harder, because it involved engaging two different components of the sketchpad simultaneously, making one area of the brain work harder. Suggesting that the proposed 'sketchpad' and the components within, did in fact exist.
  • agathaismycopilot
    Answered in Memory: 3
    Evidence for the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
    Baddeley staged a visual tracking task. One task involved only one components of the sketchpad, the other involved two. The participants found the second one significantly harder, because it involved engaging two different components of the sketchpad simultaneously, making one area of the brain work harder. Suggesting that the proposed 'sketchpad' and the components within, did in fact exist.
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    Evidence for the episodic buffer?
    Baddeley found participates when shown words and asked for immediate recall, performed better with sentences than with unrelated words. This supports the idea of an immediate memory store for items that are neither visual or phonological and that can draw on LTM, to link the words together.
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    Evidence for the phonological loop & articulatory process.
    Explains the 'word length effect', longer words cannot be rehearsed on the loop, because they won't fit due to the limited capacity. If a person is given an articulatory suppression task, the task ties up the process and means you cannot rehearse shorter words more quickly and the word length effect disappears.
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    Studies to do with Multi-tasking, what did they show and how did they support the working model?
    Hitch and Baddeley conducted an experiment to test the effect of using more than one component of working model at a time. Task 1: Involved the CE & the articulatory loop. 2: Involved one without an additional task. The results showed that task 1 was much more difficult. But the task 2, did not cause any problems, suggesting when two different components are used performance isn't affected.
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    Evidence from brain damaged patients which supports the WM?
    *Case study of KF. His STM worked independently from his LTM. His short-term memory was much better in the area of verbal material which was meaningful. Thus his brain damage seemed to be restricted to the phonological loop.

    *Another patient SC, had good learning abilities with exception of being able to learn 'word pairs', suggesting damage to the phonological loop.

    *Another patient LH, had been involved in a road accident, performed better at spatial tasks than those involving visual imagery. This suggests separate visual and spatial systems.'
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    Strengths of the Working model?
    *Emphasis on process rather than structure

    *Explains the word length effect and partial short term memory difficulties (KF & SC)

    *Considerable amount of research evidence to support the model, especially more recent studies & brain scans, showing active areas of the brain.

    *Opens up further research & opportunities for refining the model. Allowing psychologists involve themselves further into the idea of sub-components of memory.