Phonology Terminology Quiz 1

Last update by Shanal on 10/25/2013
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3 types of phonological processes

Answer:
1. syllable structure processes: sound changes that simplify the production of syllables

2. substitution processes: sound changes in which one class of sounds replaces another

3. assimilation processes: sound changes in which one sound influences another to become more like it

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  • jagaglioti
    Types of syllable structure processes
    1. final consonant deletion: ha for hat
    2. cluster reduction: ne for nest
    3. weak syllable deletion: nana for banana
    4. reduplication: wawa for water
    5. metathesis: shifting production of a phoneme from one place in the word to another; aks for ask
    6. epenthesis: addition of sound elements not present; balue for blue
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    Substitution processes
    1. stopping: substitue stops for fricative and affricate; tun for sun

    2. fronting: production of sounds in a more anterior location then typical place of articulation; do for go

    3. depalatalization: substitution of an alveolar for a palatal; tsip for chip

    4. gliding: substitution of glide for a liquid or frication; wed for red
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    Substitution processes cont
    5. vocalization: substitution of a vowel for a liquid; taba for table

    6. deaffrication: substitution of fricative for affricate; zip for jeep

    7. prevocalic voicing: substitution of voiced consonant for voiceless consonant; do for two

    8. devoicing: substitution of voiceless consonants for voiced, dok for dog

    9. lateralization: substitution of a lateral for a lingual sound; ve for they
  • jagaglioti
    assimilation processes
    1. labial assimilation: a dominent labial sound influences another sound to become more life it; pop for pot

    2. velar assimilation: velar sound influences another sound to become more life it; gog for dog

    3. nasal assimilation: nasal sound influences another sound to become more nasal; nin for wing
  • jagaglioti
    assimilation processes
    1. labial assimilation: a dominent labial sound influences another sound to become more life it; pop for pot

    2. velar assimilation: velar sound influences another sound to become more life it; gog for dog

    3. nasal assimilation: nasal sound influences another sound to become more nasal; nin for wing
  • jagaglioti
    Differences between linear and non-linear theories
    linear:
    -sequential arrangement of sound segments
    - each sound bundle of distinctive features
    -common set of DF
    -all segments and DF are equal
    -rules only apply to segmental level

    non-linear:
    -segments governed by more complex linguistic dimensions
    -hierarchy of factors affect segmental units
    -dynamic system of features, ranked one about the other
    -larger units (stress, intonation) influence smaller units (indiv sound segments)
  • jagaglioti
    Autosegmental phonology
    -conceived to account for cases in which a single segment is associated with two mutually exclusive features

    -ex: affricates- start as a stop released as a fricative
    - continuant to + continuent

    -Feature spreading: ex- rounding can be spread to other surrounding v/c
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    metrical phonology
    extends hierarchical analysis procedures to both stress and syllable boundaries
  • jagaglioti
    feature geometry
    -expanded upon autosegmental phonology by adding other hierarchically ordered feature tiers

    -segments are composed of multitiered hierarchically organized features

    - CONSTRAINT BASED NOT RULE GOVERNED
  • jagaglioti
    optimality theory
    - CONSTRAINT BASED NOT RULE GOVERNED

    -Constraints: what limits the possible production of a word

    - Based on the principles of markedness
    1. characterize universal patterns that occur across languages
    2. variations of patterns within a language
    3. markedness is determined by constrain violations

    -look at constraint violations and these are more marked
    -going to make more errors on marked sounds