Language Development Test 3

Last update by kgiambruno on 03/03/2011
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Lexical vs. Grammatical morphemes

Lexical morpheme- has meaning in and of itself, nouns, verbs, adjectives

grammatical morpheme- does not has meaning in and of itself
-conditions, conjunctions, etc that have no meaning on its own

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  • kgiambruno
    Free vs. Bound morphemes
    Free-morpheme that can stand alone, makes a word by itself (school, buy)
    -lexical (open class): serve as in preserve
    -grammatical: at, and (word that stand alone but need another word to give it meaning)

    Bound-has to be attached to something (plural "s")
    -lexical(close class)- clude as in include
    -grammatical-er as in higher
  • kgiambruno
    Derivational vs. Inflectional morphemes
    ONLY for bound morphemes

    Derivational- changes grammatical category of the root
    -like to likable-when you add a new morpheme a new word is formed

    Inflectional-plural, possessives, "est"-.suffixes
    -does not form a new word
  • kgiambruno
    Optional Infinitive Stage
    A stage in early childhood (age 2-3) during which children sometimes include tense inflections on their main clauses and some time fail to include tense inflections in this context-producing infinitive verb forms instead

    part of normal development of morphology
  • kgiambruno
    Optional infinitives
    -main clauses require verbs to to be marked for tense

    -non-inflicted, infinitive verb forms are heard by child in dependent clauses
    -I dont want to go to the store
    -During this stage, children believe that marking tense in main clauses is optional

    they dont always change the tense, sometimes they do sometimes they dont
  • kgiambruno
    any one of the possible phonetic forms of a morpheme

    which allomorph is used depends on the final sound of the word
    (sound changes based on root words)

    -plural markers can have the phonetic form of /s/ hats, /z/ cars, or watches /ez/
    -reg past -ed can have the phonetic form of talked /t/ rowed/d/. /ed/ painted
  • kgiambruno
    Extended optional infinitive
    Clinical marker for specific language impairment (SLI)

    Children with SLI fail to progress beyond optional infinitive stage
    Normal OI to age 3
    SLI OI to age 8 or later (thus, extended) emerge in written language in adulthood)

    System is poorly organized
    -need lots of repetition/strategy to learn form and bypass system
  • kgiambruno
    SLI specific language impairment
    children with SLI have a myriad of very specific deficits in early language development

    -these deficits progress into more general learning deficits that affect all areas of academic performance

    -extremely complex disorder that is not well understood but seems to have genetic component

    Treat with repetition, various types of input, teaching strategies
  • kgiambruno
    Early Clinical Markers for SLI: Grammatical
    1) Deficits in verb morphology
    -past tense -ed
    -3rd person singular
    -copluar and auxiliary verbs forms (esp BE, HAVE, DO)
    2) Inappropriate assignment of case to pronouns
    -prefer object pronoun
    (Him bite me, her do it, me have it)
  • kgiambruno
    Early Clinical Markers for SLI: Vocabulary
    3) Poor performance on non-word repetition tasks- can they repeat it?
    4)Poor performance on confrontation naming tasks-name the item/color etc
    5) demonstrate word finding difficulties in spontaneous speech
    -circumlocution-talking around what they say b/c of wording finding problems
    -overrelieance on all purpose vocabulary (N-stuff, thing, V-do)
  • kgiambruno
    Early Clinical Markers for SLI: Phonology
    Sound difference
    6)poor performance on phoneme discrimination task
    7) and phonological working memory-poor reading outcomes
    8)may or may not have concomitant phonological processing/articulation disorders
Language Development Test 3
Language Development Test 3
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Semantic, Phonological, and morphological development
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