Medieval Music

Last update by Shanal on 10/18/2013
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What are goliard songs?

Answer:
Goliard song is a name given to composers of these 'racy' songs composed by students traveling the countryside.

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  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    Explain Troubadour Song.

    -What are the two main forms of toubadour canso songs?
    troubadour songs are active from late 1000s to early 1200's. The troubadours are specific groups of poets and composers, who were active in southern France-they were affiliated with the aristocratic courts.
    The main type of troubadour song is the canso. The language of these songs is not the modern French, it is the language of southern France, that goes by a number of different names-Occitan (fin amour-meaning refined love).In these songs, an important concept was that of refined love or even courtly love. It refers to a relationship between the poet and his lady. The poet is desirous of the women but she is not interested in him.

    An early troubadour was Duke William of Aquitain-he was a very aristocratic figure.

    There are two main forms of troubadour canso songs.
    1)Through composed-each of the lines of poetry within a strophe have a unique melody and no 2 lines are the same.
    2) Bar form-AAB-3 sections, AA (same musically) and B (different). More than 1 line in each section, could have 3 lines for A, 3 for A, 3 for B (varies).
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    Define Feudalism.
    Feudalism is a complex system of relationships, there are overloads and there are vassals-one aristocrat will be in debt to another one, who is a little higher in status than he is, because he is getting protection from that overload.
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    Talk about points of Performance.
    Possibly unaccompanied. Most of these songs are heterophonic (meaning that 2 versions is not exactly like the other (varying through ornamentation, decoration. This was said to have been inspired by Arabic music, along with ancient Asian music.
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    The Video shown in class for Early Musical Instruments has many points, name them.
    Reed Instruments.
    Shawm-Expanding conical board, a bell and tiny reed (whole of the reed in the mouth). Normally reserved for use out of doors. First Europeans-Crusaders hard this, and brought it back to Europe (in use for 500 years). Good for dance music. During the middle ages, it developed in many ways-embouchure changed, the reed became much larger and more control with the breath, not just the lips. This instrument developed into a family-soprano, alto, bigger alto, tenor, bass, great bass.

    Bagpipes-The Roman emperor Nero is one of the first performers on it in history. There are a variety of bagpipes. It is used to provide continuos sound by air. When you pause the breath, the air goes into a bag, you keep it going by your elbow-it used a valve ("wind cap") to close the air so it does not escape. There is also a melody pipe with a double reed. Wooden instruments produce great sounds.

    Dulcian-Ancestor of the modern bassoon-bass dulcian.Conical structure.

    Sordune- Derived from the dulcian-cylindrical, as opposed to conical structure.

    Rackett-German word for "crooked"

    Crumhorn- Similar to the bagpipes-reed is separated from the player's lips (like on the bagpipes). You have to control the air supply. Reed cap idea applied to many other instruments. Less than 150 years of useful life (some other instruments less than 100)

    Kortholt-Like the dulcian or the sordune. Had the reed cap idea.

    Rauschpfeife-Version of the shawm.
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    The video shown in class talks about flutes and whistles explain the video and all the different types of flutes and whistles.
    -Back in the day a recorder was considered a "proper" serious instrument. Instrument makes took inspiration from the human voice.
    -Whistle instruments-/pipe and tabor, folk pipes--go back thousands of years. The earliest whistle was made out of bone, later bamboo. These were used by the troubadours/minstrels.
    -Panpipes-unimportant as a serious musical instrument. Played my shepherds, herders. Panpipes has simple melodies. The sound in produced by blowing across the holes. The flute is rationalization of pipe instrument.
    -Flutes-established in Europe by 12th century. German speciality. It was a single tube with finger holes. Used by minnesingers and troubadours. From the 13th century and onward it was associated with the drum (military music)
    -Gemshorn-German instrument. Known as the animal horn because of the way it looks. It has a softer sound; "watery sound"
    -Great Consort-these are the lower-sounding recorders. Volume is limited.

    Flute types-(physically blow across the hole)
    Whistle types-(blow into the instrument to make sound)
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    What are minnesingers?
    Minnesingers are poet-composers who are writing monophonic songs.
    -'minne' is a medieval German word that means: "refined love"
    -Their songs are strophic.
    -Songs are usually in AAB bar form.
    -They quite often have religious subject matter.
  • crouchsa
    Answered in Medieval Music
    What is estampie?
    Estampie is a series of phrases. Common in dance music.