AP Psychology Chapter 1

Last update by Michael on 01/17/2013
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21.

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of

A)

explanation.

B)

prediction.

C)

control.

D)

replication.

E)

experimentation.

Answer:
B. Prediction

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    22.

    A correlation coefficient is a measure of the

    A)

    difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

    B)

    average squared deviation of scores from a sample mean.

    C)

    direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.

    D)

    statistical significance of a difference between two sample means.

    E)

    frequency of scores at each level of some measure.

    C)

    direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.

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    23.

    Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

    A)

    standard deviation

    B)

    mean

    C)

    median

    D)

    correlation coefficient

    E)

    range

    D)

    correlation coefficient

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    24.

    To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a

    A)

    skewed distribution.

    B)

    scatterplot.

    C)

    standard deviation.

    D)

    bar graph.

    E)

    pie chart.

    B)

    scatterplot.

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    25.

    If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that

    A)

    there is very little statistical relationship between weight and reading ability among children.

    B)

    low body weight has a negative effect on the reading abilities of children.

    C)

    better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.

    D)

    body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities of children.

    E)

    weight is a causal variable dependent on reading ability.

    C)

    better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.

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    26.

    If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are

    A)

    causally related.

    B)

    negatively correlated.

    C)

    independent variables.

    D)

    dependent variables.

    E)

    positively correlated.

    B)

    negatively correlated.

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    27.

    If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are

    A)

    causally related.

    B)

    positively correlated.

    C)

    independent variables.

    D)

    dependent variables.

    E)

    negatively correlated.

    B)

    positively correlated.

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    28.

    To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use

    A)

    the case study approach.

    B)

    naturalistic observation.

    C)

    correlational measures.

    D)

    experimental research.

    E)

    random assignment.

    C)

    correlational measures.

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    29.

    An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of

    A)

    perceiving order in random events.

    B)

    generalizing from extreme examples.

    C)

    randomly sampling children's views.

    D)

    exaggerating the extent to which others share our beliefs.

    E)

    assuming that correlation proves causation.

    E)

    assuming that correlation proves causation.

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    30.

    Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will bring bad luck. Felicia's belief best illustrates

    A)

    the illusion of control.

    B)

    illusory correlation.

    C)

    the hindsight bias.

    D)

    the false consensus effect.

    E)

    random sampling.

    B)

    illusory correlation.

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    31.

    The King James Version of the Bible was completed when William Shakespeare was forty-six years old. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the forty-sixth word is “shake,” and the forty-sixth word from the end is “spear.” Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would be best advised to recognize the danger of

    A)

    considering these facts as statistically significant.

    B)

    randomly sampling biblical passages.

    C)

    generalizing from extreme examples.

    D)

    assuming that most people share your opinions.

    E)

    perceiving order in coincidental events.

    E)

    perceiving order in coincidental events.

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    A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that