AP Psychology Chapter 1

Last update by Michael on 01/17/2013
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3.

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

A)

naturalistic observation.

B)

illusory correlation.

C)

overconfidence.

D)

the standard deviation.

E)

placebo.

Answer:
C. Overconfidence

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    4.

    Critical thinkers can best be described as

    A)

    questioning.

    B)

    cynical.

    C)

    overconfident.

    D)

    pessimistic.

    E)

    impatient.

    A)

    questioning.

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    5.

    According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of

    A)

    naturalistic observation.

    B)

    illusory correlation.

    C)

    hindsight bias.

    D)

    replication.

    E)

    a theory.

    E. A theory
  • starfish 1301

    6.

    Hypotheses are best described as

    A)

    assumptions.

    B)

    replications.

    C)

    explanations.

    D)

    confirmations.

    E)

    predictions.

    E)

    predictions.

  • starfish 1301

    7.

    A hypothesis is a(n)

    A)

    observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables.

    B)

    testable prediction that gives direction to research.

    C)

    set of principles that organizes observations and explains newly discovered facts.

    D)

    unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning.

    E)

    statement of procedures used to define research variables.

    B)

    testable prediction that gives direction to research.

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    8.

    A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

    A)

    standard deviation.

    B)

    control condition.

    C)

    replication.

    D)

    operational definition.

    E)

    observation.

    D)

    operational definition.

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    9.

    An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates

    A)

    the independent variable.

    B)

    an operational definition.

    C)

    the double-blind procedure.

    D)

    random assignment.

    E)

    the dependent variable.

    B)

    an operational definition.

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    10.

    Replication involves

    A)

    the selection of random samples.

    B)

    perceiving order in random events.

    C)

    repeating an earlier research study.

    D)

    rejecting ideas that cannot be scientifically tested.

    E)

    overestimating the extent to which others share our views.

    C)

    repeating an earlier research study.

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    11.

    To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

    A)

    the survey

    B)

    the case study

    C)

    experimentation

    D)

    naturalistic observation

    E)

    correlation

    B)

    the case study

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    12.

    The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it

    A)

    is based on naturalistic observation.

    B)

    may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

    C)

    overestimates the importance of operational definitions.

    D)

    leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between events.

    E)

    relies mostly on correlational rather than causational evidence.

    B)

    may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

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    13.

    A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that “classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools.” Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that “classroom prayer in public schools should be banned.” These divergent findings best illustrate the importance of

    A)

    an illusion of control.

    B)

    the hindsight bias.

    C)

    the false consensus effect.

    D)

    random assignment.

    E)

    wording effects.

    E. Wording efffects
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    14.

    Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion?

    A)

    the survey

    B)

    naturalistic observation

    C)

    the case study

    D)

    experimentation

    E)

    random assignment

    A. The survey