AP Psychology Chapter 1

Last update by Michael on 01/17/2013
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1.

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

A)

dismiss the value of replication.

B)

reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested.

C)

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

D)

assume that correlation proves causation.

E)

overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.

Answer:
C. exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

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    2.

    When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates

    A)

    illusory correlation.

    B)

    the false consensus effect.

    C)

    the placebo effect.

    D)

    wording effects.

    E)

    overconfidence.

    E. Overconfidence
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    3.

    Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

    A)

    naturalistic observation.

    B)

    illusory correlation.

    C)

    overconfidence.

    D)

    the standard deviation.

    E)

    placebo.

    C. Overconfidence
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    4.

    Critical thinkers can best be described as

    A)

    questioning.

    B)

    cynical.

    C)

    overconfident.

    D)

    pessimistic.

    E)

    impatient.

    A)

    questioning.

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    5.

    According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of

    A)

    naturalistic observation.

    B)

    illusory correlation.

    C)

    hindsight bias.

    D)

    replication.

    E)

    a theory.

    E. A theory
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    6.

    Hypotheses are best described as

    A)

    assumptions.

    B)

    replications.

    C)

    explanations.

    D)

    confirmations.

    E)

    predictions.

    E)

    predictions.

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    7.

    A hypothesis is a(n)

    A)

    observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables.

    B)

    testable prediction that gives direction to research.

    C)

    set of principles that organizes observations and explains newly discovered facts.

    D)

    unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning.

    E)

    statement of procedures used to define research variables.

    B)

    testable prediction that gives direction to research.

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    8.

    A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

    A)

    standard deviation.

    B)

    control condition.

    C)

    replication.

    D)

    operational definition.

    E)

    observation.

    D)

    operational definition.

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    9.

    An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates

    A)

    the independent variable.

    B)

    an operational definition.

    C)

    the double-blind procedure.

    D)

    random assignment.

    E)

    the dependent variable.

    B)

    an operational definition.

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    10.

    Replication involves

    A)

    the selection of random samples.

    B)

    perceiving order in random events.

    C)

    repeating an earlier research study.

    D)

    rejecting ideas that cannot be scientifically tested.

    E)

    overestimating the extent to which others share our views.

    C)

    repeating an earlier research study.

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    11.

    To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

    A)

    the survey

    B)

    the case study

    C)

    experimentation

    D)

    naturalistic observation

    E)

    correlation

    B)

    the case study