AP Psychology Prologue

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19.

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

A)

structuralism versus functionalism.

B)

evolution versus natural selection.

C)

observation versus introspection.

D)

nature versus nurture.

E)

humanism versus behaviorism.

Answer:
D. Nature vs. Nurture

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    20.

    In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to ________ as Plato is to ________.

    A)

    soul; body

    B)

    structuralism; functionalism

    C)

    stability; change

    D)

    introspection; observation

    E)

    nurture; nature

    E. Nurture; nature
  • starfish 1301

    21.

    The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

    A)

    functionalism.

    B)

    natural selection.

    C)

    behavior genetics.

    D)

    structuralism.

    E)

    introspection.

    B. Natural Selection
  • starfish 1301

    22.

    Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.

    A)

    neuroscience

    B)

    psychodynamic

    C)

    behavior genetics

    D)

    cognitive

    E)

    psychoanalytic

    A. Neuroscience
  • starfish 1301

    23.

    The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

    A)

    feelings are influenced by blood chemistry.

    B)

    people try to understand their own unconscious motives.

    C)

    behavior is influenced by environmental conditions.

    D)

    people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

    E)

    how behaviors and thinking vary across cultures.

    D. people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
  • starfish 1301

    24.

    Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.

    A)

    social-cultural

    B)

    behavioral

    C)

    cognitive

    D)

    evolutionary

    E)

    psychodynamic

    D)

    evolutionary

  • starfish 1301

    25.

    The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on

    A)=

    natural selection.

    B)

    brain chemistry.

    C)

    unconscious conflicts.

    D)

    learned behaviors.

    E)

    introspection.

    C)

    unconscious conflicts.

  • starfish 1301

    26.

    Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?

    A)

    evolutionary

    B)

    neuroscience

    C)

    behavioral

    D)

    behavior genetics

    E)

    psychodynamic

    C. Behavioral
  • starfish 1301

    27.

    Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?

    A)

    cognitive

    B)

    social-cultural

    C)

    psychodynamic

    D)

    behavioral

    E)

    neuroscience

    E. Neuroscience
  • starfish 1301

    28.

    Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ________ perspective.

    A)

    psychodynamic

    B)

    behavior genetics

    C)

    cognitive

    D)

    humanistic

    E)

    behavioral

    B. Behavior genetics
  • starfish 1301

    29.

    Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?

    A)

    cognitive

    B)

    psychodynamic

    C)

    behavioral

    D)

    behavior genetics

    E)

    evolutionary

    A. Cognitive
  • starfish 1301

    30.

    Dr. MacPherson believes that the way students organize and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. Dr. MacPherson's ideas most directly exemplify the ________ perspective.

    A)

    social-cultural

    B)

    cognitive

    C)

    psychodynamic

    D)

    behavior genetics

    E)

    neuroscience

    B. Cognitive