AP Psychology Prologue

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14.

Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of

A)

childhood memories.

B)

genetic predispositions.

C)

unconscious thoughts.

D)

healthy growth potential.

E)

punishment and reinforcement.

Answer:
D. Healthy growth potential

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    15.

    In the 1960s, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorists to be excessively

    A)

    illogical.

    B)

    biological.

    C)

    introspective.

    D)

    mechanistic.

    E)

    cognitive.

    D. Mechanistic
  • starfish 1301

    16.

    In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of

    A)

    mental processes.

    B)

    hereditary influences.

    C)

    unconscious motives.

    D)

    learned behaviors.

    E)

    evolutionary influences.

    A. Mental processes
  • starfish 1301

    17.

    In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.

    A)

    environmental influences; hereditary influences

    B)

    maladaptive behavior; adaptive behavior

    C)

    unconscious motives; conscious thoughts and feelings

    D)

    mental life; observable behavior

    E)

    biology; culture

    D. Mental life; observable behavior
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    18.

    Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

    A)

    conscious and unconscious mental activity.

    B)

    observable responses to the environment.

    C)

    behavior and mental processes.

    D)

    thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

    E)

    maladaptive and adaptive behaviors.

    C. Behavior and metal processes
  • starfish 1301

    19.

    Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

    A)

    structuralism versus functionalism.

    B)

    evolution versus natural selection.

    C)

    observation versus introspection.

    D)

    nature versus nurture.

    E)

    humanism versus behaviorism.

    D. Nature vs. Nurture
  • starfish 1301

    20.

    In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to ________ as Plato is to ________.

    A)

    soul; body

    B)

    structuralism; functionalism

    C)

    stability; change

    D)

    introspection; observation

    E)

    nurture; nature

    E. Nurture; nature
  • starfish 1301

    21.

    The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

    A)

    functionalism.

    B)

    natural selection.

    C)

    behavior genetics.

    D)

    structuralism.

    E)

    introspection.

    B. Natural Selection
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    22.

    Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.

    A)

    neuroscience

    B)

    psychodynamic

    C)

    behavior genetics

    D)

    cognitive

    E)

    psychoanalytic

    A. Neuroscience
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    23.

    The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

    A)

    feelings are influenced by blood chemistry.

    B)

    people try to understand their own unconscious motives.

    C)

    behavior is influenced by environmental conditions.

    D)

    people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

    E)

    how behaviors and thinking vary across cultures.

    D. people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
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    24.

    Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.

    A)

    social-cultural

    B)

    behavioral

    C)

    cognitive

    D)

    evolutionary

    E)

    psychodynamic

    D)

    evolutionary

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    25.

    The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on

    A)=

    natural selection.

    B)

    brain chemistry.

    C)

    unconscious conflicts.

    D)

    learned behaviors.

    E)

    introspection.

    C)

    unconscious conflicts.