Chapter 11 AP Biology

Last update by Shanal on 10/10/2013
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In cellular communication, the change in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell. 



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    A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one. 


  • mkguerin
    An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein. 

    Protein Kinase

  • mkguerin
    An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase. 

    Protein Phosphatases

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    A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as a calcium ion (Ca) or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell’s interior in response to a signaling molecule bound by a signal receptor protein. 

    Second Messengers

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    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells. It is also a regulator of some bacterial operons. 

    Cyclic Amp (cAMP)

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    An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a signal

    Adenylyl Cyclase

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    A second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca concentration.

    Inositol Triphosphate

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    A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.


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    A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction. 

    Scaffolding Proteins

Chapter 11 AP Biology
Chapter 11 AP Biology
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