Chapter 3

Last update by Hannah on 09/21/2010
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Proximodistal (growth pattern) 

Growth from inside out. EX: infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers. 

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  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    The First Year
    •Average American newborn - 20 inches long; 7 ½ pounds

    •Most newborns lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight adjusting to feeding

    •Age 4 monthsà triple their birth weight

    •Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    The Brain
    •Cerebral cortex (fatty ripple)
    •Two hemispheres
    •Both sides are connected by the corpus collosom
    •Left hemisphere is for language
    •Right side is for visual things, ie. art, music…
    •Four lobes
    •frontal lobes
    •Last to develop (mid late 20s) judgment
    •occipital lobes
    •Gets damaged easily in head on collision. This is why they can black out.
    •temporal lobes
    •parietal lobes
    •Skin sensation   
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    The Brain sections
  • Hannah
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    •Parts of the neuron
    axon –long thing part of a neuron •dendrites –receiver signals •myelin sheath –insulation that surround the neuron •terminal buttons –sends signals •Neurotransmitters –chemicals/signals themselves Synapse –space in between neurons
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    •unused connections are replaced by other pathways or disappear

    •The Case of Genie
    •She was an infant who’s father locked her in a crib with a lid on it with food in a room. There was nothing in the room at all.
    •She was 8 or 10 when CPS found her. She could not walk, talk or move.

    Neuron connections are automatically there in a new born but if they are not used they can turn into something else or they can disappear

  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    •typical newborn sleeps 16 to 17 hours a day
    •preferred times and patterns of sleep also vary
    •No concepts of night or day. Not until 4months old do they realize the difference.
    •Infants spend a greater amount of time in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
    •by 3 months of age, the percentage of time in REM sleep decreases
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    •SIDS is the highest cause of infant death in the United States

    Risk of SIDS is highest at 4 to 6 weeks of age 
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    Risk Factors for SIDS
    •Sleep on their backs
    •More common in low birth weight infants
    •Exposure to cigarette smoke
    •More frequent in infants who sleep in
    soft bedding
    •Less likely in infants who use a pacifier when they go to sleep
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    Breast feeding 
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    Nutritional Needs
    •Nutritionists recommend that infants consume approximately 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh
    •(More than twice an adult’s requirement per pound)
  • Hannah
    Answered in Chapter 3
    •Genetically carried survival mechanisms
    •Allows infants to respond adaptively to their environment (“natural selection”)
    EX: blinking, breathing, grasping, stepping are all natural selection. 
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
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