## Chapter 8

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# Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the second law ofthermodynamics?A) If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy ofthe universe.B) If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in theenergy of the rest of the universe.C) Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.D) Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.E) Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

D) Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.

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Which of the following statements is representative of the second law of thermodynamics?

A) Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of freeenergy.

B) Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work.

C) Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.

D) Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.

E) Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe.

D) Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.

Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?

A) dehydration reactions

B) hydrolysis

C) respiration

D) digestion

E) catabolism

A) dehydration reactions

The organization of organisms has become increasingly complex with time. This statement

A) is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

B) requires that due to evolution, the entropy of the universe increased.

C) is based on the fact that organisms function as closed systems.

D) A and B only

E) A, B, and C

A) is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

2nd law--Every energy transfer increases the entropy of the universe

the more random--->the greater the entropy

Wouldn't the second answer have to be correct also?
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibrium—the state of maximum entropy.

Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy?

A) a boy mowing grass

B) water rushing over Niagara Falls

C) a firefly using light flashes to attract a mate

D) a food molecule made up of energy-rich macromolecules

E) an insect foraging for food

D) a food molecule made up of energy-rich macromolecules

Which of the following is considered an open system?

A) an organism

B) liquid in a corked bottle

C) a sealed terrarium

D) food cooking in a pressure cooker

A) an organism

Which of the following is true of metabolism in its entirety?

A) Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy from food

B) Metabolism depends on an organism's adequate hydration

C) Metabolism utilizes all of an organism's resources

D) Metabolism is a property of organismal life

E) Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism

D) Metabolism is a property of organismal life

Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?

A) The products have more total energy than the reactants.

B) The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

C) Some reactants will be converted to products.

D) A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.

E) The reactions are nonspontaneous.

B) The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the following could be anexample of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in a cell?

A) a reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at anypoint away from equilibrium

B) a chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by anopposite entropy change in the cell's surroundings

C) an endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction issupplied only by heat from the environment

D) a chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolicpathway that is completely inactive

E) There is no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell.

D) a chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolicpathway that is completely inactive

A chemical reaction that has a positive

A) endergonic.(absorption of energy)

Which of the following best describes enthalpy (H)?

A) the total kinetic energy of a system

B) the heat content of a chemical system

C) the system's entropy

D) the cell's energy equilibrium

E) the condition of a cell that is not able to react

B) the heat content of a chemical system

Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?

A) Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.

B) It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.

C) Its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releasesfree energy.

D) Its terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two.

E) A, B, C, and D

B) It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.

Chapter 8
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