## Chapter 3

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# Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms byA) buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams.B) decreasing the H+concentration of lakes and streams.C) increasing the OH-concentration of lakes and streams.D) washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients forplant growth.E) both B and C

D) washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients forplant growth.

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Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From thisinformation, we can reasonably conclude that

A) solution Y has no free hydrogenions (H+).

B) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 30 times as great as the concentration of

hydrogen ions in solution Y.

C) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y is 1,000 times as great as the concentration

of hydrogen ions insolution X.

D) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 3 times as great as the concentration of

hydrogen ions in solution Y.

E) None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.

E) None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO2+ H2OH2CO3. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO2. What predictioncan we make about the pH of blood as that blood first comes in contact with respiring cells?

A) Blood pH will decrease slightly.

B) Blood pH will increase slightly.

C) Blood pH will remain unchanged.

D) Blood pH will first increase, then decrease as CO2combines with hemoglobin.

E) Blood pH will first decrease, then increase sharply as CO2combines with hemoglobin.

A) Blood pH will decrease slightly.

A100 mL beaker contains 10 mL of NaOH solution at pH = 13. A technician carefully poursinto the beaker, 10 mL of HCl at pH = 1. Which of the following statements correctly describesthe results of this mixing?

A) The concentration of Na+ion rises.

B) The concentration of Cl-ion falls.

C) The concentration of undissociated H2O molecules remains unchanged.

D) The pH of the beaker's contents rises.

E) The pH of the beaker's contents falls.

E) The pH of the beaker's contents falls.

Equal volumes of vinegar from a freshly-opened bottle are added to each of the followingsolutions. After complete mixing, which of the mixtures will have the highest pH?

A) 100 mL of pure water

B) 100 mL of freshly-brewed coffee

C) 100 mL of household cleanser containing 0.5M ammonia

D) 100 mL of freshly-squeezed orange juice

E) 100 mL of tomato juice

C) 100 mL of household cleanser containing 0.5M ammonia

You have two beakers; one contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (woodalcohol). The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogenbonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into each beaker.

Predict what will happen.

A) Equal amounts of NaCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol.

B) NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either water or methanol.

C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol.

D) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in methanol but will not dissolvein water.

E) When the first crystals of NaCl are added to water or to methanol, they will not dissolve; but

as more crystals are added, the crystals will begin to dissolve faster and faster.

C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol.

You have two beakers. One contains a solution of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains asolution of NaOH at pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of theHCL and 20 mL of the NaOH. After complete stirring, the pH of the mixture will be

A) 2.0.

B) 12.0.

C) 7.0.

D) 5.0.

E) 9.0

C) 7.0

Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is mostdirectly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?

A) water's change in density when it condenses

B) water's ability to dissolve molecules in the air

C) the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds

D) the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds

E) water's high surface tension

D) the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds

A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-Lcontainer of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water?

(Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg.)

A) 50°C

B) 5°C

C) 10°C

D) 100°C

E) 1°C

C) 10°C
Chapter 3
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