## Chapter 3

Last update by Smcdonald1 on 09/18/2014
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# If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that theA) concentration of H+is twice (2X) what it was at pH 5.B) concentration of H+is half (1/2) what it was at pH 5.C) concentration of OH-is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.D) concentration of OH-is one-hundredth (0.01X) what it was at pH 5.E) concentration of H+is 100 times greater and the concentration of OH-is one-hundredth whatthey were at pH 5.

C) concentration of OH-is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.

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One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H) than 1 L of a solutionof pH 6?

A) 4 times more

B) 400 times more

C) 4,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

One liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more hydroxyl ions (OH-) than 1 L of a solutionof pH 4?

A) 5 times more

B) 100 times more

C) 1,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?

A) They maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them but not when acids are added tothem.

B) They maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them but not when bases are added tothem.

C) They maintain a constant pH of exactly 7 in all living cells and biological fluids.

D) They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.

E)They are found only in living systems and biological fluids

D) They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by

A) releasing H+in acidic solutions.

B) donating H+to a solution when they have been depleted.

C) releasing OH-in basic solutions.

D) accepting H+when the are in excess.

E) Both B and D are correct.

E) Both B and D are correct.

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3).

Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion

(H+). Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3-+ H+

If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3and an increase in the concentration of HCO3-.

B) the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase.

C) the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase.

D) the HCO3-to act as a base and remove excess H+with the formation ofH2CO3.

E) the HCO3-to act as an acid and remove excess H+with the formation of H2CO3.

D) the HCO3-to act as a base and remove excess H+with the formation ofH2CO3

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid H2CO3.

Carbonicacid is a weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a

bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3-+ H+

If the pH of the blood increases, one would expect

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3andan increase in the concentration of H2O.

B) an increase in the concentration of H2CO3and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.

C) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3-and an increase in the concentration of H2O.

D) an increase in the concentration of HCO3-and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.

E) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3-and an increase in the concentration of both H2CO3

and H2O.

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3andan increase in the concentration of H2O.

Assume that acid rain haslowered the pH of a particular lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxylion concentration of this lake?

A) 1 × 10-10mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water

B) 1 × 10-4mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water

C) 10.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration

D) 4.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration

E) both B and D

A) 1 × 10-10mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water

Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by

A) buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams.

B) decreasing the H+concentration of lakes and streams.

C) increasing the OH-concentration of lakes and streams.

D) washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients forplant growth.

E) both B and C

D) washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients forplant growth.

Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From thisinformation, we can reasonably conclude that

A) solution Y has no free hydrogenions (H+).

B) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 30 times as great as the concentration of

hydrogen ions in solution Y.

C) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y is 1,000 times as great as the concentration

of hydrogen ions insolution X.

D) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 3 times as great as the concentration of

hydrogen ions in solution Y.

E) None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.

E) None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO2+ H2OH2CO3. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO2. What predictioncan we make about the pH of blood as that blood first comes in contact with respiring cells?

A) Blood pH will decrease slightly.

B) Blood pH will increase slightly.

C) Blood pH will remain unchanged.

D) Blood pH will first increase, then decrease as CO2combines with hemoglobin.

E) Blood pH will first decrease, then increase sharply as CO2combines with hemoglobin.

A) Blood pH will decrease slightly.

A100 mL beaker contains 10 mL of NaOH solution at pH = 13. A technician carefully poursinto the beaker, 10 mL of HCl at pH = 1. Which of the following statements correctly describesthe results of this mixing?

A) The concentration of Na+ion rises.

B) The concentration of Cl-ion falls.

C) The concentration of undissociated H2O molecules remains unchanged.

D) The pH of the beaker's contents rises.

E) The pH of the beaker's contents falls.

E) The pH of the beaker's contents falls.
Chapter 3
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