## Chapter 3

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# What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OH-] concentration of 10-12M?A) pH 2B) pH 4C) pH 10D) pH 12E) pH 14

A) pH 2

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What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of 10-8M?

A) pH 2

B) pH 4

C) pH 6

D) pH 8

E) pH 10

D) pH 8

Which of the following statements about water is correct?

A) Water is more dense as a solid than it is as a liquid

B) Water is less dense as ice than it is as liquid

C) Water is a good solvent for lipids

D) Compared to most other substances, the temperature of water rises sharply when is absorbs heat

E) Compared to most liquids, the evaporation of water requires very little heat

B) Water is less dense as a solid

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the

A) concentration of H+has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.

B) concentration of H+has increased 10-fold (10X) compared towhat it was at pH 9.

C) concentration of OH-has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9.

D) concentration of OH-has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.

E) Both B and D are correct.

E) Both B and D are correct.

If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the

A) concentration of H+is twice (2X) what it was at pH 5.

B) concentration of H+is half (1/2) what it was at pH 5.

C) concentration of OH-is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.

D) concentration of OH-is one-hundredth (0.01X) what it was at pH 5.

E) concentration of H+is 100 times greater and the concentration of OH-is one-hundredth what

they were at pH 5.

C) concentration of OH-is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.

One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H) than 1 L of a solutionof pH 6?

A) 4 times more

B) 400 times more

C) 4,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

One liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more hydroxyl ions (OH-) than 1 L of a solutionof pH 4?

A) 5 times more

B) 100 times more

C) 1,000 times more

D) 10,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

E) 100,000 times more

Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?

A) They maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them but not when acids are added tothem.

B) They maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them but not when bases are added tothem.

C) They maintain a constant pH of exactly 7 in all living cells and biological fluids.

D) They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.

E)They are found only in living systems and biological fluids

D) They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by

A) releasing H+in acidic solutions.

B) donating H+to a solution when they have been depleted.

C) releasing OH-in basic solutions.

D) accepting H+when the are in excess.

E) Both B and D are correct.

E) Both B and D are correct.

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3).

Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion

(H+). Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3-+ H+

If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3and an increase in the concentration of HCO3-.

B) the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase.

C) the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase.

D) the HCO3-to act as a base and remove excess H+with the formation ofH2CO3.

E) the HCO3-to act as an acid and remove excess H+with the formation of H2CO3.

D) the HCO3-to act as a base and remove excess H+with the formation ofH2CO3

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid H2CO3.

Carbonicacid is a weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a

bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,

H2CO3 HCO3-+ H+

If the pH of the blood increases, one would expect

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3andan increase in the concentration of H2O.

B) an increase in the concentration of H2CO3and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.

C) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3-and an increase in the concentration of H2O.

D) an increase in the concentration of HCO3-and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.

E) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3-and an increase in the concentration of both H2CO3

and H2O.

A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3andan increase in the concentration of H2O.

Assume that acid rain haslowered the pH of a particular lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxylion concentration of this lake?

A) 1 × 10-10mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water

B) 1 × 10-4mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water

C) 10.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration

D) 4.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration

E) both B and D

A) 1 × 10-10mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water
Chapter 3
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