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Last update by Shanal on 10/04/2013
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Factors that Affect 

Natural Selection

Answer:

Darwin identified a number of factors that affect the process of natural selection: overproduction, competition, and variation

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    Overproduction

    Living things produce more young than can survive. These bunnies are an example of overproduction. With too many offspring, there are not enough resources (food, water, and living space) for all of them.
  • yraibutheen
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    Competition

    The struggle among living things for limited resources including... the proper amount of food, water, and living space. There are limited resources (not enough food and other resources) so the offspring must compete with each other to survive.
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    Variations and 

    the  Advantage of 

    Some Variations

    The difference between individuals of the same species is called a variation.

    Some variations can determine which individuals will survive the struggle for existence and reproduce.

  • yraibutheen
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    Evolution
    Change over time Without variations, all the members of of a species would have the same traits. Darwin did not know anything about genes or mutations. Variations can result from mutations in genes or from shuffling of alleles during meiosis.
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    Species
    Living things that share a large number of characteristics and adaptations are identified as one kind of organism, called a species. Sometimes it is hard to tell by looking at them whether two organisms are members of the same species. Members of the same species can mate and produce offspring that can also reproduce.
  • yraibutheen
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    Speciation

    When one species evolves from another it is called speciation.

    Speciation begins when a portion of the population of a species becomes isolated.

    A new species might form when a group of individuals remains separated from the rest of its species long enough to evolve different traits.

  • yraibutheen
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    Continental Drift

    Geographic isolation has occurred  worldwide.

    Pangaea gradually split apart. This is called continental drift.

    As a result of continental drift, many species of marsupials evolved in Australia.

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    Time scale of the earth
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    Evolutionary Relationships Among Organisms

    Scientists compare body structures, development before birth, and DNA sequences to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms.

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    Gradualism

    evolution occurs slowly, steadily.

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