Chapter 10. Human Development.

Last update by silver91 on 04/06/2010
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The Germinal Stage
-When does it occur?
-How does it begin?
-What happens during?

Answer:
1. It occurs the first 2 weeks after conception
2. It Begins when a zygote is created by fertilization

3. Zygote becomes a mass of divided cells.
Mass moves down fallopian tube to uterine cavity.
Implantation occurs around the 7th day, cells rapidly reproduce
Placenta develops.

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  • silver91
    Embryonic Stage
    -When does it occur?
    -What develops?
    -What occurs?

    1. From 2 weeks until 8 weeks
    2. Most vital organs and systems- Brain, Circulatory systems, ect.
    Starts to look human.

    3. Cells become more specialized.
    Embryo is about an inch.
    Period of great vulnerability.
  • silver91
    Fetal Stage
    -When does it occur?
    -What occurs?
    -Development?
    -Age of viability?

    1. Lasts from 2 months until birth
    2.Rapid growth in first 2 months.
    Fetus can move
    Organs grow/develop
    Last 3 months brain cells develop rapidly

    3. When the baby can survive without the mother. Between 22 and 26 weeks (about 6-7 months).
  • silver91
    Maternal Nutrition-

    Malnutrition-


    Drug Use-


    Smoking-


    Alcohol-
    maternal nutrition- what the mother eats is passed along to the baby.
    malnutrition-even moderate can lead to difficulties later on in life, such as..
    birth complications, neurological deficits, schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses

    drugs-still birth, miscarriage, sids, premature, attention deficits, hyperactivity.

    smoking- same as drug use.

    alcohol-fetal alcoholic syndrome, a small head, heart defects, irritability, delayed motor movement.
  • silver91
    Motor Development-

    Phalocaudal Trend-


    Proximodistal Trend-


    Maturation-


    Developmental Norms-
    1- the development of movement in the baby.
    2- HEAD TO FOOT direction of motor development

    3- TORSO --> OUTWARD direction of motor development

    4- genetically programmed changes that come with age; As opposed to experience and learning.

    5- "typical" age at which children display various behaviors and abilities.
  • silver91
    **Attachment

    --with whom
    -when occurs?

    **Seperation anxiety-



    1. close emotional bonds of affection between infants and their caregivers- usually mother (when newborn doesn't recognize who they're with)
    -about 6-8 months show preference for mom

    2. emotional distress seen when infant is separated from person it is attached to.
    -feel insecure with people they don't know
  • silver91
    **Harry Harlow - Rhesus Monkey Experiment

    John Bowlby's Biological Basis
    1. Monkeys need/want comfort over food.
    2. -infants are programmed to coo, cling,&cuddle.
    - triggers affectionate, loving responses
    -parents are programmed to be captivated by behaviors.
  • silver91
    Mary Ainsworth's Categories of Attachment
    1. Secure Attachment- baby becomes distressed when mom leaves
    2. Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment- distress when mom is there or not

    3. Avoidant Attachment- baby doesn't react to the caretaker.

    Pattern of attachment depends on mother's sensitivity as well as infant's temperament.
  • silver91
    Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
    Stage-


    Psychosocial crisis-
    1. developmental period= patterns of behavior and established and shown
    2. confrontation during each stage= how you deal with this; how you feel about it later on in life.
  • silver91
    Trust vs. Mistrust
    -Age?
    -Need?
    -Effect?

    1. Newborn - 1 year
    2. Needs others to care for him.

    3. Provided= optimistic, trust world
    Not Provided= insecure
  • silver91
    Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    -Age?
    -Occurs?
    -Effect?

    1. 1 year to 3 years
    2. child takes personal responsibility for themselves

    3. Successful= will feel self-sufficient
    Not Success= will feel shame, and doubt themselves
  • silver91
    Initiative vs Guilt
    -Age?
    -Main focus?
    -Effect?

    1. 3 years to 6 years
    2. Social functioning in family -> need encouragement from parents

    3. Can Well= have self confidence
    Cannot= family may instill a sense of guilt if they only think about themselves