Exam One Study Guide

Last update by Madison on 09/16/2013
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4.

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.

A)

environmental influences; hereditary influences

B)

maladaptive behavior; adaptive behavior

C)

unconscious motives; conscious thoughts and feelings

D)

mental life; observable behavior

Answer:
D) Mental life; observable behavior

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    5.

    The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as

    A)

    behaviorism.

    B)

    cognitive neuroscience.

    C)

    humanistic psychology.

    D)

    positive psychology.

    A) behaviorism
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    6.

    Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's

    A)

    childhood memories.

    B)

    genetic predispositions.

    C)

    unconscious thought processes.

    D)

    potential for healthy growth.

    D) potential for healthy growth
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    7.

    Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of

    A)

    conscious and unconscious mental activity.

    B)

    observable responses to the environment.

    C)

    behavior and mental processes.

    D)

    maladaptive and adaptive behaviors.

    C) behavior and mental processes
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    8.

    Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian-American friends result from biological or cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of

    A)

    neuroscience and cognition.

    B)

    nature and nurture.

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    behavior and mental processes.

    D)

    conscious and unconscious thoughts.

    B) nature and nurture
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    Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna's difficulties requires

    A)

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    B)

    psychoanalysis.

    C)

    massed practice.

    D)

    a biopsychosocial approach.

    D) a biopsychosocial approach
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    10.

    Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

    A)

    pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity.

    B)

    ingenuity, practicality, and certainty.

    C)

    certainty, creativity, and curiosity.

    D)

    curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

    D) curiosity, skepticism, and humility
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    When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying

    A)

    the placebo effect.

    B)

    hindsight bias.

    C)

    random assignment.

    D)

    critical thinking.

    D) critical thinking
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    Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)

    A)

    theory.

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    replication.

    C)

    naturalistic observation.

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    illusory correlation.

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    Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of

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    A)

    hypothesis.

    B)

    independent variable.

    C)

    operational definition.

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    case study.

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