B&B Lecture 13

Last update by mayurcooled on 04/11/2014
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Organ of Corti

Answer:
Located in the scala media and converts sounds to neural activity. 3 main structures:
-Sensory cells/hair cells, supporting cells, basilar membrane (oscillates during vibration)

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Related Quiz Content
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    Tonotopic organization of basilar membrane/cochlea
    High frequency: Displaces base
    Low frequency: displaces the apex

    Similar organization in the PAC
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    Inner hair cells
    Contains stereocilia
    Afferent fibers (send messages TO the brain)
    gives rise to the perception of sound

    Use glutamate
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    Outer hair cells
    Small afferent number, more efferent (get messages from the brain)
    Modulate sound perception/ fine tune cochlea to permit greater sound discrimination.
    They can change the length of the stereocilia to stiffen or relax the tectorial or basilar membrane. (touch tectorial membrane)

    Use ACh
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    Transduction of hair cells
    When the hair cells are displaced, the tip links pull open ion channels, and calcium and potassium rush into the cell, depolarizing it, and causing the vesicles to fuse to the membrane, releasing either ACh or glutamate.
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    Tip links
    Small fibers that run across each hair's stereocilia that open ion channels when the stereocilia are displaced.
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    Neural Pathway
    Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), cochlear nucleus, superior olivary nucleus (sound localization), projects to the inferior colliculus (midbrain), then MGN in the thalamus, and lastly the PAC.
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    Inferior colliculus tonotopic organization
    Organized based on what tones the area responds to.
    IC is organized in bands that are sensitive to specific sound frequencies.
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    Binaural cues
    Cues from both ears to compute sound localization
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    Intensity differences
    Differences in loudness from the ears, due to the sound shadow

    Higher frequencies: Greater perceived differences in loudness than low frequency
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    Latency differences
    Differences between to the 2 ears in the TIME OF ARRIVAL of sounds. (sound shadow)

    Onset disparity: difference in hearing at the beginning of a sound.
    Ongoing phase disparity: Continuous difference between ears in arrival of parts of sound.
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    sound shadow
    Your head blocks direct access of sound waves to your head equally.
B B Lecture 13
B&B Lecture 13
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