## Statistics - 1

Last update by thatslolowithanl on 02/16/2010
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# 4 STEPS TO HYPOTHESIS TESTING

1. State the Hypotheses: Null vs. Alternative

2. Formulate an Analysis Plan: describes how to use sample data to reject or accept null hypothesis, based on test statistic.

3. Analyze Sample Data: Find the value of the test statistic (mean score, proportion, t-score, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan. Complete other computations, as required by the plan.

4. Interpret Results: does test statistic support or reject null hypothesis?

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NOMINAL scale of measurement

"Name"

Categorical/ qualitative

Breeds of dogs (Categories: Husky, Cocker Spaniel, Terrier)

Class levels of students(Categories: Freshman, Junior, etc)
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ORDINAL scale of measurement

"logical Order/ Sequence"

Class (lower-middle-upper) Size (S-M-L-XL)

Rating (excellent-good-fair-poor) Rank (1st, 2nd, 3rd ...)
• Answered in Statistics - 1

INTERVAL scale of measurement
"Fixed units/ Even increases" (above/below zero)

<---------------------0--------------------->

Celcius degrees (......-10...........0..........20........60......)

Years (10,000 B.C...........0..........110 A.D...........1976 A.D.)

Money
• Answered in Statistics - 1

RATIO scales of measurement

Ratio scales are
Interval scales with an "absolute zero,"
where [0 = absence of thing being measured]

absolute zero on the Kelvin temperature scale:
0 ̊K = all motion stops

absolute zero when measuring pulse:
0 beats per minute = no pulse (dead)

absolute zero when measuring weight:
0 lbs./oz./mg/ etc = absence of matter

• Answered in Statistics - 1
[chart]
MODEMEDIAN
MEAN
NOMINAL
ORDINAL

• Answered in Statistics - 1
SAMPLE MEAN (equation)
Sample mean =

x = ( Σ xi ) / n
• Answered in Statistics - 1
SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION (equation)
Sample standard deviation =

s = sqrt [ Σ ( xi - x )2 / ( n - 1 ) ]
• Answered in Statistics - 1
SAMPLE VARIANCE (equation)
Sample variance =

s2 = Σ ( xi - x )2 / ( n - 1 )
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N
N = number of values for X
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N

N = number of values for X
• Answered in Statistics - 1

x

X=data setfor a population(all numbers in the set)

uppercase X= population

Statistics - 1
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