1. State the Hypotheses: Null vs. Alternative2. Formulate an Analysis Plan: describes how to use sample data to reject or accept null hypothesis, based on test statistic. 3. Analyze Sample Data: Find the value of the test statistic (mean score, proportion, t-score, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan. Complete other computations, as required by the plan. 4. Interpret Results: does test statistic support or reject null hypothesis?