The Kidneys

Last update by marcellus on 04/02/2012
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Describe the filtration process of the capillary endothelium

Answer:
- Fenestrated to allow for diffusion of solutes including plasma proteins
- Allows for most components of the plasma to filter through the endothelium
- Small enough to prevent blood cells from leaving the capillary

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    1. Hydrostatic Presure(PH)
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    - Higher inside the glomerular capillaries than within the Bowman's capsule -- pressure gradient averages 30 mm Hg and favors flow back into the capillaries
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    Describe how fluid pressure affects glomerular filtration
    - Bowman's capsule is closed and fluid in the space creates hydrostatic fluid pressure that opposes fluid flow out of the capsule (15mm Hg)
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    What is Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and how is it calculated?
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    - Permeability of interface between the capillary and Bowman's Capsule
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    - Afferent resistance decreases GFR -- pressure decreases on the glomerular side of constriction
    - Efferent resistance increases GFR -- pressure increases on the glomerular capillaries
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    Describe Reabsorption
    - Reabsorption allows the return of ions and water to the plasma to regulate homeostasis
    - Reabsorption happens by both active and passive transport
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    What role does the proximal tubule serve in the reabsorption process?
    - Absorbs more than 99% of organic nutrients found in the fluid
    - Absorbs sodium, potassium, magnesium, bicarbonate, phosphate and sulfate ions
    - As reabsorption occurs the concentration of the solute in the tubular fluid decreases while it increases in the peritubular fluid and capillaries
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    Describe sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule
    1. Sodium enters the cell through membrane proteins, moving down its electrochemical gradient
    2. Sodium is pumped out the basolateral side of the cell by Na+/K+ ATPase
The Kidneys
The Kidneys
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Kidney Physiology as part of Kinesiology 2610 taught by Stephen Cornish in Spring 2012 at the University of Lethbridge
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